One of the strongest assets of Nyxt is its configurability: anything in the Common Lisp code base can be changed and extended.
While technically possible, it proved practically difficult to design a system that users could easily leverage. We were in dire need of a configuration framework that would accompany and empower the user beyond the capabilities of pure Lisp.
Case study: Emacs
The Emacs text editor is a model of extensible computer applications. Its legendary customizability has given birth to thousand of extensions.
Nyxt draws much from Emacs when it comes to extensibility, namely, by allowing the user to reprogram everything from their configuration file.
When Emacs was designed in the 1980s, it's likely that the developers didn't expect third-party extensions would play a significant role in the Emacs community. Nor did they expect, I suppose, that someday hardcore fans would use Emacs for everything, including their window manager.
It isn't all perfect though. Emacs customizability comes with its load of limits, and it's common to read stories of "configuration bankruptcy" – a term coined to mean a user is overwhelmed by the complexity of their own configuration.
A frequent source of Emacs bankruptcy is inherent to its architecture: state. The state consistency of Emacs is one of its biggest weaknesses since much of its configuration is based on unguarded global values. This can lead to hard-to-debug configurations and conflicts between extensions.
What we need
With Nyxt, we envision the growth of a community and, hopefully, a vibrant library of third-party extensions! At the same time, we realize that the global state of Emacs is a limiting factor that must be fixed from the root, lest we reach a point of no return.
Starting from a configurability similar to Emacs (also using a Lisp language), here follows our specification:
All configurable original values should be accessible at any time.
Default values should be configurable at any time (from the configuration file but also while running the browser).
Third-party packages should be able to offer customized core settings, or even settings for other third-party packages.
Any option or set of options should be reversible to a previous state (not just the original value). In particular, this would allow the user the switch themes and disable themes (something that does not work well in Emacs).
Sets of options should be composable. In particular, the user should be able to apply two option sets, choosing which one takes precedence.
Common Lisp comes with a very powerful object-orientated system: CLOS. We figured out that we should leverage it since it does most of the heavy lifting when it comes to structuring data.
Almost all the data in Nyxt is structured into classes. Thus, configuring an option amounts to configuring a class slot (sometimes called an attribute in other languages).
The first obvious strategy that comes to mind is to make the slot default value point to a global variable which the user can customize:
(defvar *default-modes* '(web-mode base-mode)) (defvar *search-engines* (list (make-instance 'search-engine :shortcut "wiki" :search-url "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=~a" :fallback-url "https://en.wikipedia.org/"))) (define-class buffer () ((default-modes *default-modes*) ;; More slots... (search-engines *search-engines*)))
The drawbacks are obvious:
- We need as many "default" variables as we have slots. This is a burden to maintain and prone to errors.
- Being globals, replacing them means altering the global state, which opens the door for inconsistencies in the global state (the same problem as Emacs).
- Changes to variables are irreversible: there is no way to access the previous state or the original state (unless it was saved manually).
This approach is not sustainable. We need a better way. In particular, we wanted to follow a more "functional" paradigm (in the sense of functional programming) – without seeking purity.
CLOS is complex and powerful. Some parts are left unspecified. We initially thought we could leverage this hole in the specs to our advantage.
We first tried to set the slot default value directly by leveraging the introspection library
closer-mop. It worked with the SBCL compiler but was not portable and very brittle, it was particularly difficult to handle inheritance correctly.
We tried to replace the class definition directly, for instance
This hack works as long as there is no inheritance. The new definition won't propagate to its children which results in inconsistent class definitions. This is too confusing and hard to maintain.
closer-mop:ensure-classto redefine the class as above. This would trigger the CLOS internals to update all the child classes, thus fixing the inheritance issue. Problem: How do we redefine a single slot without rewriting the code for all slots? Using the above
bufferexample, if we write
it would define a new
bufferclass without any slot but the
default-modes. It seems there is no good way to say "insert the rest of original slots here".
In computer science, it can be considered good practice to use composition instead of inheritance for increased flexibility and less complexity. This is what led us to implement what we call "user classes": slot-less classes that only inherit from a list of classes, namely the original class followed by the specialized classes. To clarify, let's consider this example with the
Whenever we want to instantiate a buffer, we call
Why is this interesting? Because now you can safely redefine the user class without touching the original
Our user-buffer override now inherits from
buffer. Parent classes are ordered by priority, with the highest priority being first. This means that
user-buffer will use the
default-modes slot from
my-buffer and the rest of its slots from
This resolves our problem statement: no globals (beside
user-buffer), we keep access to the original value, we compose all settings and we can revert any change. Indeed, should you decide you want to remove the defaults of
my-buffer, you can redefine
user-buffer without it.
Even though the syntax is relatively light, we offer the
define-configuration helper macro:
This macro comes with some benefits:
It's shorter and easier to write, the user class is automatically updated for you.
It displays a warning when the slot name is unknown, which is convenient for catching typos.
%slot-defaultto the default value of the class slot which enables convenient modification. This allows the user to automatically adapt the new default to new versions of Nyxt.
Conclusions and thoughts
Our approach is both powerful and flexible. The user has the ability to change any value at runtime – without risk of corrupting global state. Each buffer, or any other class instantiated objects, can be safely manipulated and reverted without fear of repercussion.
We would like to encourage other programs and programmers to empower their users using similar techniques. Give users the tools they need to adapt and modify their programs to suit their workflow!
A tool that works for the 80% is great when you are doing common work, but when you are doing extraordinary work, that extra 20% makes the difference.
Thanks for reading :-)